Professional Development

Professional Development

The Professional Development page is dedicated to creating a language around diversity in its broadest sense and recognizing, celebrating and appreciating difference while supporting all functions related to the creation of a diverse workforce and programs to reach diverse audiences.

Programming for Clientele with Developmental DisabilitiesFeatured Items

How to Register for “Communicating across Cultures” Course  ENROLLMENT FLYER Course.docx

Upcoming Webinars

Previous Webinars:

The Contribution of 4-H to Social Capital and Social Justic

California 4-H Embracing Diversity & Fostering Inclusion – Not an easy taskLet’s Talk about Race

Programming for Clientele with Developmental Disabilities

Three Tools for Engaging Latino Youth Populations and Place

Engaging Seasonal/ Migrant Farm Workers

4H Futures Program

Understanding Social Identity Development

Immigrants and Cooperative Extension: Opportunity and Challenge

Improving Extension Accessibility

Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) Webinar

Strategies for Effectively Communicating through an Interpreter

Moving Beyond Translation: Integrating Language Access into Program Planning

Volunteering in under-resourced communities: Challenges for urban Master Gardeners

Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity: Working with LGBTQ Clients

How to Facilitate Difficult Conversations

Land Grant Impacts Database Informational Webinar

Structural Racism and Food Inequity

Digital Commerce: Electronic Buying and Selling of Goods

CoP General Meetings (Recordings):

January 29, 2018

November 27, 2017

October 23, 2017

September 25, 2017

April 24, 2017

March 20, 2017

January 30, 2017

October 24, 2016

September 26, 2016 

March 28, 2016

February 29, 2016

November 23, 2015

October 26, 2015

The Language of Diversity

Exploring Tribal Leadership: Understanding and Working With Tribal People (pdf)

Diversity Paragraphs (pdf)


Organizational Development and Change

Organizational Development and Change

The Organizational Development and Change page contains models, resources, and best practices for organizational change. As we develop our capacity to serve a diverse society, we must also evolve our Extension system to one which will nurture and sustain our efforts to be effective in honoring the differences among us.

Featured Item

Preventing violence against women and girls.pdf  Abstract: Men’s violence against women and girls is a blunt expression of the pervasive gender inequalities that characterize countries across the globe. Men’s violence against women both expresses and maintains men’s power over women. Indeed, rape, domestic violence and other forms of violence have been seen as paradigmatic expressions of the operation of male power over women (Miller and Biele 1993, p. 53). Whether in workplaces or elsewhere, efforts to build gender equality must reckon with men’s violence against women.

A meta-analytic evaluation of diversity training outcomes.pdf  This meta-analysis used theory and research on diversity, attitudes, and training to
examine potential differential effects on affective-based, cognitive-based, and skill-based outcomes.

Organizational Performance Consequences of Age Diversity.pdf Take a look at the effects of Diversity-Friendly HR policies and top managers’ negative age stereotypes.

Organizational Climate and Culture Review.pdf  Here is a review outlining organizational climate and culture theory

The Path from Exclusive Club to Inclusive Organization: A Developmental Process  Learn how you can move your organization from being monocultural, to one that is inclusive of all people: The Path from Exclusive Club.pdf

Navigating Difference: Development and Implementation of a Successful Cultural Competency Training for Extension and Outreach Professionals  Learn how the Washington State University Extension addresses quality standards for successful implementation of diversity training models here: Navigating Difference.pdf

We all know that working in teams is beneficial to achieving performance goals. However, diverse teams can also bring its own unique challenges. For more information on how to develop efficient and effective teams, please see the attached article:

Developing diverse teams to improve performance in the organizational setting.pdf

Diversity Not Just a Human Resources Function Anymore

Making Excellence Inclusive is designed to help colleges and universities fully integrate their diversity and educational quality efforts and embed them into the core of academic mission and institutional functioning. Through this initiative, the Association of American Colleges and Universities re-envisions diversity and inclusion as a multi-layered process through which we achieve excellence in learning; research and teaching; student development; institutional functioning; local and global community engagement; workforce development; and more.

Organizational Climate: Conducting a Climate Assessment (pdf)

Source: Susan Rankin, Principal & Senior Research Associate, Rankin & Associates, Consulting. Conducting a climate assessment is one of the first steps toward creating an effective multicultural organization.
Assessing Organizational Climate – Part I (pdf)
Assessing Organizational Climate – Part II (pdf)
PowerPoint Presentation given by Susan Rankin at CASD/CASE 2005 National Diversity Conference
Authenticity in a Community Setting — A Tool for Self-Reflection and Change
Equity and Social Justice Diversity LinksOrganizational Development and Change by Claude Faucheux, Gilles Amado and Andre Laurent, 1982.

The Management of Innovation by Tom E. Burns and G. M. Salker, 1961

Exploring…research, paradigms and best practices, challenges and opportunities connections between organizational change and reaching diverse audiences

Organizational Change Section Editor:
Teresa Curtis
University of Wisconsin-Madison
(608) 262-3427

The Winning 4-H Plan

Educators from Ohio have developed an awareness program for 4-H educators, volunteers, parents, and youth in which the participants experience everyday situations that individuals with special needs face daily. Called the Winning 4-H Plan, the program aims to create a positive environment for diverse special-needs youth to help them reach their fullest potential as capable, competent, caring, and contributing citizens.

Youth with disabilities have the right to enjoy extracurricular activities such as 4-H. Efforts through 4-H programming and volunteer training need to ensure that children with disabilities have broad access to educational opportunities available through the hands-on learning experiences that 4-H provides. “All youth, regardless of their physical and mental conditions, need and deserve the opportunity to be involved in activities unique to their own special talents and interest. They also need to be integrated, to the greatest extent possible, with other children with and without disabilities in preparation for adulthood in a world with great diversity. For this reason, adults working with organizations such as 4-H should be well informed about disabilities and their implication for involvement of youth” (Tormoehlen and Field 1994). Volunteers need to understand that in addition to simply including youth with special needs, they will need to make adaptations and promote empathy among members and adults. “Inclusion means that people with disabilities have the same opportunities for involvement in meaningful and satisfying experiences as afforded other segments of the population” (Stumpf et al. 2002).

Use of the 4-H PetPALS curriculum, which challenges participants to experience what it is like not to be able see clearly, hear normally, or have all tactile sensations, has helped create an awareness of special-needs conditions that talking and lecture do not. Participants in the Winning 4-H Plan undergo similar experiences through a series of hands-on work stations that emphasize the challenges that special-needs individuals face every day. This training helps both adults and youth be better prepared to adapt project materials and experiences and provide support to accommodate special-needs youth in traditional 4-H club programs and activities. Through this sensitivity training, 4-H youth and adult volunteers gain a better understanding of the challenges special-needs youth face.

The goal of the Winning 4-H Plan is to better accommodate special-needs 4-H participants across the country while providing resources for professionals, volunteers, and parents in the Cooperative Extension System so that they can create the best possible experiences for special-needs youth. “When asked specifically about people who have special challenges, the majority of Extension professional agreed or strongly agreed that learning to relate effectively with physically challenged people (68.4%) and mentally challenged people (56.3%) should be an important part of 4-H” (Ingram 1999).

The Winning 4-H Plan helps create a culture in the 4-H movement within the Cooperative Extension System that embraces all youth and helps ensure that youth are involved in activities and programs that have a step-by-step progression of challenges so that successes can be celebrated along the way. 4-H embraces everyone and continues to strive for widespread involvement and inclusion neighborhood by neighborhood, city by city, and county by county.


Coleman, B.M. and Booth, N. “4-H and the Handicapped: Volunteers’ Perception,” Journal of Extension, January 1984 volume 22, Number 1.

Ingram, P.D. (1999) “Attitudes of Extension Professionals toward Diversity Education in 4-H Programs,” Journal of Extension. Available at

Small Animal Interaction Programs, 4-H Youth Development, Ohio State University Extension, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio and H. M. Suthers-McCabe, D.V.M., Associate Professor, Extension Specialist Human-Companion Animal Interaction, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Blacksburg, Virginia, copyright 2002, The Ohio State University Extension, pages 83 to 107 and appendices pages 183 to 211.

Stumpf, M., Henderson, K., Luken, K., Bianleschki, D., and Casey II, M. (2002) “4-H Programs with a Focus on Including Youth with Disabilities,” Journal of Extension. Available at

Tormoehlen, Rand and Field,W.E. (1994) “A Perfect Fit: Involving Youth with Disabilities in 4-H,” Journal of Extension. Available at

Migrant Farm Workers: Our Nation's Invisible Population

migrant farm workers photo

By Eduardo González, Jr., State Diversity Specialist, Cornell University Cooperative Extension Farm workers in United States

Between 1 and 3 million migrant farm workers leave their homes every year to plant, cultivate, harvest, and pack fruits, vegetables and nuts in the U.S. Although invisible to most people, the presence of migrant farm workers in many rural communities throughout the nation is undeniable, since hand labor is still necessary for the production of the blemish-free fruits and vegetables that consumers demand

Who are Migrant Farm workers?

Migrant farm workers are predominantly Mexican-born sons, husbands, and fathers who leave what is familiar and comfortable with the hopes and dreams of making enough money to support their families back home; feed themselves; purchase land and a home; and – like many immigrants who came before them – ultimately return to their homeland. While others come from countries such as Jamaica, Haiti, Guatemala, Honduras, Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and other states in the United States their aspirations remain the same. They are young, averaging about 31 years of age. Some arrive as single men, while others leave their families behind while they seek work and others travel and work with their families. For those who travel without their families, once they realize that they will need to maintain their U.S. earning capacity, they would much rather have their families settle with them in the U.S. More than half of all farm workers – 52 of every 100 – are unauthorized workers with no legal status in the United States.

Many farm workers arrive with solid agricultural skills firmly grounded in practical experience and working knowledge of agriculture. This expertise is complemented by a strong work ethic, deeply rooted in their commitment to provide for their families or make it on their own. This is reflected in their willingness to make considerable sacrifices in order to guarantee a more prosperous future for their extended families, their children and/or their siblings. These sacrifices range from separation from their countries of origins, families, and what is familiar to learning to navigate a foreign land where little is known about them and whose customs, language, foods, and ways of life are different from what they know. In many instances this new place brings about feelings of alienation and isolation. No longer is La Plaza – a central gathering place in town for community interaction and fellowship in their countries of origin – available to them. Instead loneliness creeps in for many as they are limited to the boundaries of the farm due in part to limited access to transportation and also to their lack of legal status which reduce their access to neighborhood businesses, services and community activities in general. Fear of being picked up by Immigration and Naturalization Services (INS) due to their undocumented status causes many farm workers to go into hiding in the communities that they work and live in and further contributes to the isolation that farm workers routinely experience. So in many ways, Migrant farm workers work in settings that do not mirror those of the majority of the nation’s working populace.

In spite of these challenges, for many the hopes and dreams of making more money in the U.S than in their countries of origin is enough to drive them to make this enormous sacrifice. Many experience great pride in the contribution that they make to society through their labor for they realize their work feeds the world. For these farm workers there is also a sense of accomplishment in their ability to support their families in purchasing homes or going to school in their home country. For others, their hopes and dreams do not always materialize to the degree envisioned and promised with 61 percent of U.S. farm workers’ income falling below the poverty level. A median income of less than $7500 a year leave many feeling trapped with no other viable options outside of formwork and with the shame and indignity of returning to their homelands with less than what they came.

Why Do They Come

A host of push-pull factors contribute to the overwhelmingly immigrant farm worker labor pool. Some push factors in farm workers’ countries of origin are economic instability, political unrest, population growth, land reform shortcomings in rural areas, and scarce employment opportunities. Push factors that impact immigration patterns vary from country to country and from individual to individual. This is to say that the circumstances that cause an individual to emigrate from Colombia, South America may be different from those that cause an indigenous person from the states of Michoacán, Oaxaca, or Guanajuato in Mexico to come to the United States. A Colombian immigrant fleeing political persecution and civil unrest seeks asylum as a political refugee, while the indigenous Mexican treks across the desert into the US in search of work and income to support their family back home or just to be able to eat.

Pull factors within the United States include the ongoing desire for a low cost labor force to fill jobs no longer attractive to US citizens due to low pay, limited or no benefits and/or substandard work conditions. Other more direct pull factors have included federally enacted and administered farm labor programs such as the Bracero contract labor program that recruited workers from Mexico to harvest crops in the Southwestern United States from 1942 – 1964. Today, larger numbers of Mexican farm workers have moved into other regions of the country, including the Northeast, through a similar farm labor contract program known as the H-2A agricultural guest worker program enacted by Congress in 1952 and more widely used when the Bracero program ended in 1964.

Immigration Status

One of the key dynamics that detrimentally impacts the lives of migrant farm workers is their lack of legal status within the U.S. Unlike other immigrant groups that came before them these workers have not been granted legal status to live in the U.S. The undocumented status of an overwhelming number of farm workers has given way to increasing injustice and abuse against them. While not always making headlines, reports of injustice and abuse against farm workers abound including those of opportunistic crew leaders, substandard housing, violence against farm workers by community members of the dominant culture, exclusion from labor laws, inadequate housing, pesticide violations, and the inferior education of children of farm workers. Out of fear of displacement and deportation, farm workers often remain unable to protest inadequate conditions or report employer’s violation of labor, health or safety laws to state authorities. Furthermore, despite their overwhelming representation and contribution to the agricultural community, farm workers lack political leverage, therefore remaining a disenfranchised population. This lack of legal status sets the stage for farm workers’ lack of voice, agency and advocacy – in essence it creates their invisibility.

The Changing Face of Immigrants

As we continue to grow as a nation of immigrants, we need to make an extraordinary effort to understand farm workers in their full context. The legacy and lingering effects of living in a divided society have left us with incomplete, inaccurate and distorted information as to the history, triumphs and contributions of different groups within our society. As a nation built on the sacrifices of many different immigrant groups we must bear in mind that while the faces of immigrants have changed, their pioneering spirit, courage, determination, ability to thrive, and dreams of securing a better future for their children remain the same.


Finding from the National Agricultural Workers Survey (NAWS) 1997-1998: A Demographic and Employment Profile of United States Farm workers US Department of Labor.

The Human Cost of Food: Farm workers lives, labor and advocacy Edited by Charles D. Thompson and Melinda Wiggings Working Poor: Farm workers in the United States by David Griffith and Ed Kissam.

Coming Up on the Season – Farm workers in the United States and Farmerworkers in New York State by Kay Embrey.

Farm workers and Racism by Betty Garcia Mathewson.

Photo by bobjagendorf / CC BY

Authenticity in a Community Setting — A Tool for Self-Reflection and Change

The process of change from a multicultural perspective will ask individuals and organizations to consider many new and exciting thoughts, ideas and processes. Change is a process that must be intentional, purposeful and fluid. Oftentimes the process of multicultural change is one that almost exclusively centers on the “other” in the relationship as the place where change should occur. In my attempts to work more effectively, thereby, more authentically with communities of difference, it has been important for me to begin any process of change as a journey of self-focus, self-excavation and self-reflection.

In my own personal journey, it has been important to keep present the duality of my multicultural reality; that is, that I have membership in both target groups and a non-target groups. Target groups are groups that are targeted as “less than” or different because of their race, gender, age, sexual orientation, role or job, and other differences. Non-target groups are defined as groups that are more likely to receive privileges and benefits in a society and who believe that their “way” is better.1 In any given situation, I am an elder, 40+ years old and Latino [target group] and a male, middle and owning class, heterosexual, U.S. born, a person without disabilities and an English speaker [non-target group]. These group memberships, along with the actions, behaviors and reactions that are associated with each, have an impact on my ability to work effectively and authentically with communities of difference. Moreover, when I can operate from a place of healing of my target group experiences and understand when I am operating from my points of privilege and in less authentic ways from my non-target group status, I may be able to incorporate ideas such as trust, sustainability, authenticity and community in-reach.

Operating in relationships across differences from a place of trust and authenticity that are grounded in sustainability and community in-reach, will, over time lead to new and exciting opportunities. These opportunities will engage individuals and organizations with new audiences, lead to individual and organizational growth, and result in the continued relevancy of any organization willing to commit to this ongoing process. Committing to and incorporating these tenants on the individual and institutional levels will assist as a foundation for multicultural change.


A key foundational tenet for developing and maintaining healthy relationships across differences is the development and preservation of trust. Trust goes beyond the desire of individuals or organizations of difference to be engaged in an interaction together. It must be a mutually defined relational principle that needs continuous work and updating. It is effortful, intentional and ongoing. Developing trust across difference requires active listening that is focused on understanding others’ realities and holding those differing realities as relevant as my own. Trust is centered on the ability to reduce denial and defensiveness and a commitment to remaining in the relationship and “at the table” as the relationship develops and when tension or discomfort arises. Trust is identifying where we get stuck and how we will work collectively to keep the relationship intact operating from a place of wholeness, health and authenticity. Helpful questions to keep in mind when developing trust across differences are:

1. Why would the target group I am interested in working with desire to be involved with my organization or me?

2. What are my motives for wanting to be involved in this relationship? Are those motives foundational principles to building trust or are they obstacles?

Trust (continued)

3. What history of involvement does my organization have with the target group? What obstacles or opportunities does this history present to the relationship?

4. What personal excavation and work must I continually do to understand my privileges, my assumptions and prejudgments, and other potential barriers toward building trust as both parties continue working more closely together?

5. When interacting with individuals who are culturally different from myself, what reactions or internal messages do I receive that trigger defensiveness or denial on my part? What do I need to do for myself to work through these reactions to build and maintain a trusting relationship?


One of the true indicators of a successful multicultural relationship, collaboration or initiative is whether or not it is maintained over time and leads to other opportunities that capitalize on each other’s assets and strengthen the alliance. Although conditions for sustainability may not be measurable until the end of a process, it must be a goal of an authentic multicultural process, and intentional and purposeful planning must be integrated into all aspects of the relationship from beginning to end. It is also important that sustainability be a mutually defined and agreed upon goal, which is constantly discussed, updated and open for redefinition. Helpful questions to keep in mind when developing sustainability across differences are:

1. What characteristics and systems of mutual accountability will need to be a part of the relationship in order for there to be sustainability of the relationship or effort?

2. How are target group members involved in all aspects of the process and empowered to discuss the desire to sustain the relationship or effort beyond the original funding source, length of initiative defined in the original proposal, or when the relationship becomes internally or externally difficult?

3. What personal or non-target group characteristics must I examine that can be obstacles to sustainability? Do I need to be aware of issues related to control? Do I need to be aware of issues related to a well intentioned “savior mentality,” where my thoughts are centered on having all the right solutions and approaches to an issue and coming in to rescue the target group?

4. What do I need to be concerned about related to my tendency to operate from a monocultural approach to how a relationship or effort should be developed or sustained?

Community In-Reach Instead of Community Outreach

Many of us have been involved in community out-reach programs and initiatives. Although they may be needed, helpful and impactful, they are often based on maintaining relationships, intentionally or unintentionally, that are grounded in power and control. Many of these efforts begin with the assumption that people in non-target groups have all the “right” knowledge, information or programs, and that they need to spend time with target group members and show them what they need out of the kindness of their hearts. Moreover, non-target individuals can then tell others about their good deeds and feel great about themselves. They might even be able to receive additional funding or accolades from this endeavor while never having developed any long lasting connection with the community in which they served. These efforts are often grounded in a “savior mentality,” where individual’s thoughts are centered on having all the right solutions and approaches to an issue and coming in to rescue the target group. Additionally, these efforts based from a “savior mentality,” may include good intentions but result in limited impact, multiple levels of frustrations, and cursory relationship building.

On the other hand, community in-reach efforts can be characterized as those efforts that begin with the premises that all parties entering into the relationship have assets and that combining these assets can lead to authentic community efforts that can be established and maintained. It is less centered on maintaining power and control, and it focuses on establishing trust and genuineness. Community in-reach efforts are grounded in all parties’ willingness to be humble, patient, open to learning about themselves and others, flexible and adaptable, and committed to doing what is needed – not what is most expedient. Helpful questions to keep in mind when wanting to create community in-reach efforts across differences are:

1. What are my individual and organizational motives for wanting to do work with target groups or a target group community?

2. How will I create a process that allows for the assets of all involved to be honored?

3. What measures will be used that allow all involved to recognize when they have created a community in-reach effort that can be a model for future collaborations?

Authentic Relationships

It is important to work toward authenticity in relationships across differences. Authenticity moves beyond a mere friendship or working affiliation. It is based on trust, honesty, genuineness, responsibility to each other, willingness to be open and humble, willingness to take risks, and the understanding that tension in the relationship is a necessary component that will lead to growth. Individuals in this type of relationship practice self-focus, are more concerned about the impact of their words and actions vs. the intent, are collaborative in nature rather than competitive, are committed to being in an active and ongoing process of personal change, and constantly question their inherent biases and prejudices. Authenticity also encourages and nurtures opportunities for all engaged to heal from the ravages of oppression and work toward bringing a wholeness of spirit and mind into the relationship. Helpful questions to keep in mind when wanting to create authenticity in relationships across differences are:

1. What intentional work have I done on the personal level to understand the realities of individuals who are different from myself? In addition, what work have I done to understand the totality of my own cultural identity as a way of being conscious of my privileges?

2. Am I willing to speak my truth about my target group experiences and what will need to be present in the relationship for this to occur?

3. Am I willing to listen deeply as individuals of difference speak about the pain and reality of their experiences?

4. What work do I need to do to heal from the pain of my target group experience in order to more deeply understand my non-target group experience as I work to dismantle all forms of oppression?

5. What am I willing and able to do to continue to be aware of my tendency to perpetuate “modernism” behaviors from my non-target status for example, dysfunctional rescue or avoidance of contact, etc., that hinder my ability to develop authentic relationships?

6. Once established, what will need to be present in order to nurture this authentic relationship toward further growth and understanding of all involved?

7. What are the costs to my organization, my community and me if I am not engaged in and committed to an authentic relationship with those different from myself?

1 Batts, V. (2002). Is Reconciliation Possible: Lessons from Combating “Modern Racism.” In Douglas, I. (ed.), Waging Reconciliation: God’s Mission in a Time of Globalization and Crisis (pp.35-75) New York: Church Publishing Incorporated

© November 2003––——

Civil Rights and Legal Issues


Campus Free Speech…

Best Practices for Preparing for a Federal Civil Rights Review (State Perspective, July 2018)

PDF icon Best Practices for Preparing for a Federal Civil Rights Review

Shelley King-Curry, Tony Franklin & Lucy Diekman

 Best Practices for Preparing for a Federal Civil Rights Review

Periodically, the United States Department of Agriculture/National Institute of Food and Agriculture (USDA/NIFA) conducts a review of state Extension research, program and employment operation to ensure that federal civil rights laws and regulations are being followed. This involves a comprehensive review of the organization, including examining policies, procedures and practices.

Civil Rights and Legal Issues

The Civil Rights and Legal Issues page offers resources to assist Extension and other higher education professionals comply with federal and state nondiscrimination, affirmation action and equal opportunity laws. Civil Rights and Legal Issues provides a forum for discussions about the social justice issues faced in the higher education communities across the county.

Featured Items

If you are looking for information on creating a Language Access Plan for your institution or organization, please see below.

NIFA Limited English Proficiency Guidance: NIFA_LEP_Guidance_Implementing_Strategy_for_Federally_Assisted_Programs.pdf

You may also view the Language Access Plan that UW has created as a model. Note that this is a draft: LanguageAccessPlan2017_10-20.pdf

Discriminatory Job Postings? What’s the Deal? HigherEd Jobs. February 3, 2017

Have you ever noticed job postings that seem to discriminate against a particular group that you thought were protected under anti-discrimination laws?

Civil rights for Latinos and Non-Black groups.pdf 

This Essay discusses a number of obstacles that lie in the way of protecting Latinos and other nonblack minority groups under the current framework of statutory and constitutional civil rights, including the Thirteenth Amendment. After discussing drawbacks associated with a system of civil rights protection still inflected with the rhetoric and norms of the 1 960s civil rights movement, the Essay closes by arguing that an increasingly multiracial society such as this one needs to develop a broader, more inclusive framework and – with Latinos in mind – sketches one.

Over the next few months, we will be posting excerpts from an essay  by Professor John D. Skretny called “Have We Moved Beyond the Civil Rights Revolution?” from the Yale Law Journal.

Abstract: Bruce Ackerman’s account of the Civil Rights Revolution stresses the importance of popular sovereignty and the separation of powers as the basis of constitutional significance. In this view, key spokespersons, including Martin Luther King, Jr. and Lyndon Johnson, served to provide leadership in the effort to eliminate “institutionalized humiliation” based on racial discrimination. But how well does this account explain the current state of employment civil rights in the U.S.? This essay explores the rise of “racial realism” in American employment relations, where employers see race as a real and significant part of worker identity. Employers see racial difference as something useful that can affect the effectiveness of their organizations. This has two variants: racial abilities, referring to perceptions that workers differ in ability based on their race, and racial signaling, where employers perceive that worker race can

signal different things to customers or members of the public. I explore the use and advocacy of racial realism in a variety of spheres of private and public employment, including at high- and low-skilled levels, and argue that racial realism is a significant departure from Ackerman’s vision because—despite its prominence—it lacks national spokespersons, lacks statutory basis and has very little court authorization, can harm nonwhites, and has never been debated in a public, deliberative forum.

Part 3 of the essay can be found here: Civil Rights Essay Part 3.pdf

Part 2 of the essay can be found here: Civil Rights Essay Part 2.pdf

Part 1 of the essay can be found here: Civil Rights Essay Part 1.pdf

There has been some coverage about workplace bullying on our site under the Workforce Diversity section. For more on that, see here:
However, although there is much information on recognizing workforce bullying, there is not as much information on the legal ramifications. For more on that, read this article  the-legal-ramifications-of-workplace.pdf by the “Long
Island Business News.”


Equal Employment Opportunity

University of Georgia College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences

U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Civil Rights Policy Statement

Social Justice

Wisconsin Cooperative Extension Civil Rights Outreach

Extension Tools and Techniques to Establish Civil Rights Contact Goals

On The Issues: Background on Civil Rights

Every Political Leader on Every Issue

Know Your Rights: When Encountering Law Enforcement

American Civil Liberties Union

Civil Rights and Legal Issues Section Editor:

Antonio Franklin

University of Illinois

Link to Other Aritcles

Tony Franklin
Associate Director
College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences
111 Mumford Hall
1301 W. Gregory Dr | Urbana, IL 61801
Phone: 217-300-9120 |

Diversity Community Page


MISSION: To foster a network of multi-disciplinary approaches to meet the needs of diverse audiences.

VISION: To be the preeminent virtual community in diversity that fosters intellectual thinking, discourse, and engagement through cutting edge information and educational resources.

OPERATING PRINCIPLES: The three projects will work together and in parallel to gather, develop, research and disseminate information on topics of diversity across Extension, higher education, and the World. The Change Agent States project, the National Diversity Center and eXtension will work in consort to increase work force diversity, create organizational change, reach diverse audiences, and to provide information on civil rights. Hot topics will be provided so that up to date information is available at any time.

Sponsoring Institutions/Initiatives

  • Purdue University
  • New Mexico State University
  • University of Wisconsin
  • Change Agent States


Diversity Specialists

National 4-H Diversity Specialist

Sharon Anderson
Dianna Campbell
Jim Christianson
Dorothy Freeman
Jose Garcia
Eduardo Gonzalez
Paul Gutierrez
Cathann Kress
Benita Litson
L. Washington Lyons
Julie Middleton
Pamala Morris
Mignonne Pollard
Linda Williams-Willis
Carol Young

Change Agent States Coordinators


Diversity Center

Connecting the Land-Grant Extension System

Welcome to the National Diversity Center on eXtension! This is an initiative to provide a virtual community committed to developing educational institutions and agencies that are inclusive in make-up and practice.

Keys to Effective Extension Programs with Latino Audiences
Where to Advertise to Attract Underrepresented Professionals
The Language of Diversity
Migrant Farm Workers: Our Nation’s Invisible Population
Resources for Reaching New Audiences
The Winning 4H Plan
Recruiting Latino Youth to Attend Overnight Camp


Pamala Morris
Assistant Dean/Director
Office of Multicultural Programs
College of Agriculture
Purdue University